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Neurologic Determination of Death

This section is currently under review and revision. To see past content, click on the Archive tab below.

Link to Determination of Death laws for each state by visiting this link and clicking on the State Determination of Death Laws tab –  “Legal & Regulatory References“.

  • Brain Death ToolkitACCESS (The Alliance recommends and endorses referencing the Brain Death Toolkit hosted by the Neurocritical Care Society for all Neurological Determination of Death related references and resources.)
  • Brain Death Examination – Online Learning Module – link to – Death by Neurological Criteria Module, Cleveland Clinic
  • Evidence-Based Guideline Update: Determining Brain Death in Adultsarticle – Wijdicks EFM, Varelas PN, Gronseth GS, Greer DM. (2010), Neurology, 74: 1911-1918.

Other Relevant Literature 

  • American Academy of Neurology Guidelines and the Neurologic Determination of Deatharticle – Rady MY, Verheijde JL. (2016), JAMA Neurol, 73(6): 760-761. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2016.0428
  • Computed Tomography Angiography in the Diagnosis of Brain Death: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis – article – Kramer AH, Roberts DJ. (2014), Neurocrit Care, 21(3): 539-550. doi: 10.1007/s12028-014-9997-4.
  • Family Presence During Brain Death Evaluation article – Tawil I, Brown LH, Comfort D, et al. (2014), Crit Care Med, 42(4): 934-42. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000000102.
  • A Review of Ancillary Tests in Evaluating Brain Death – article – Heran MK, Heran NS, Shemie SD. (2008), Can J Neurol Sci, 35(4): 409-419.
  • Brain death and Transcranial Doppler: Experience in 130 Cases of Brain Dead Patients – article – Ducrocq X, Braun M, Debouverie M, et al. (1998), J Neurol Sci, 160(1): 41-46.
  • Brief Review: The Role of Ancillary Tests in the Neurological Determination of Death – article – Young GB, Shemie SD, Doig CJ, Teitelbaum J. (2006), Can J Anaesth, 53(6): 620-627.
  • Computed Tomography Angiography in the Diagnosis of Brain Death: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis – article – Kramer AH, Roberts DJ. (2014), Neurocrit Care, 21(3): 539-550. doi: 10.1007/s12028-014-9997-4.
  • Guidelines for the Determination of Brain Death in Infants and Children: An Update of the 1987 Task Force Recommendations – article – Nakagawa TA, Ashwal S, Mathur M, et al. (2011), Pediatrics, 128(3): e720-e740. doi: 10.1542/peds.2011-1511.
  • Impact of a Computerized Note Template/Checklist on Documented Adherence to Institutional Criteria for Determination of Neurologic Death in a PICU – article – Stockwell JA, Pham N, Fortenberry JD. (2011), Pediatr Crit Care Med, 12(3): 271-276. doi: 10.1097/PCC.0b013e3181fe27da.
  • Predictors of Apnea Test Failure During Brain Death Determination – article – Yee AH, Mandrekar J, Rabinstein AA, Wijdicks EF. (2010), Neurocrit Care, 12(3): 325-355. doi: 10.1007/s12028-010-9343-4.
  • Pronouncing Brain Death: Contemporary Practice and Safety of the Apnea Test – article – Wijdicks EF, Rabinstein AA, Manno EM, Atkinson JD. (2008), Neurology, 71(16): 1240-1244. doi: 10.1212/01.wnl.0000327612.69106.4c.
  • Scintigraphy as a Confirmatory Test of Brain Death – article – Conrad GR, Sinha P. (2003), Semin Nucl Med, 33(4): 312-323.
  • Transcranial Doppler Ultrasonography to Confirm Brain Death: a Meta-Analysis – article – Monteiro LM, Bollen CW, van Huffelen AC, et al. (2006), Intensive Care Med, 32(12): 1937-1944. Epub 2006 Sept 21.