German scientists have developed a novel nuclear medicine test that can determine whether a kidney transplant patient has developed infection in the transplanted tissue. The study, which utilizes positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI), is presented in the December issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine.
Complicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) occur frequently in patients after kidney transplantation due to suppression of the immune system and may lead to transplant failure or sepsis. Detecting the source and extent of infection–especially whether the transplanted kidney (allograft) is involved–without further invasive procedures can be challenging.
This study is the first application of highly-specific CXCR4-targeted PET using gallium-68 (68Ga)-Pentixafor for imaging infection. CXCR4 is a small receptor protein present on leukocytes (white blood cells) fighting infection, and CXCR4 orchestrates the recruitment of infiltrating leukocytes to the site of infection.
“Direct visualization of infiltrating leukocytes in renal allografts in the context of kidney infection has not been done before using PET,” explains Thorsten Derlin, MD, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany. “Other imaging methods have not been very useful in the past for diagnosing renal infection, and biopsy may have complications, including bleeding.”Share